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UNITED STATES

 

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

_________________

 

FORM 10-K

(Mark One)

         ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021

OR

        TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from __________ to __________

 

Commission file number 0-26128

 

Finward Bancorp

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Indiana

35-1927981

(State or other jurisdiction of 

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

incorporation or organization)

 
  

9204 Columbia Avenue 

46321

Munster, Indiana  

(Zip Code)

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

(219) 836-4400

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act: None.

 

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common stock, no par value

FNWD

The Nasdaq Stock Market, LLC

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: Common Stock, without par value

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐ No

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).         Yes ☒                   No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company”, and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:

 Large accelerated filer: ☐Accelerated filer: ☐
 

Non-Accelerated filer: ☒

Smaller reporting company 

  

Emerging growth company 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.         ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).Yes No ☒

 

Based on the average bid and ask prices for the registrant’s Common Stock at June 30, 2021, at that date, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s Common Stock held by nonaffiliates of the registrant (assuming solely for the purposes of this calculation that all directors and executive officers of the registrant are “affiliates”) was $128,281,665.

 

There were 4,294,136 shares of the registrant’s Common Stock, without par value, outstanding at March 30, 2022.

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the following documents have been incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K:

1. Definitive Proxy Statement for the 2022 Annual Meeting of Shareholders. (Part III)

 

Page 1 of 108

 
 

 

Finward Bancorp

Index

 

   

Page

   

Number

PART I.

   
 

Item 1. Business  

3

 

Item 1A. Risk Factors   

32

 

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments 

42

 

Item 2. Properties 

42

 

Item 3. Legal Proceedings 

43

 

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures  

43

 

Item 4.5 Executive Officers of the Bancorp 

43

PART II.

   
 

Item 5. Market for the Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

45
 

Item 6. [Reserved]

46
 

Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

46
 

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk 

57
 

Item 8. Financial Statements

58
 

Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

102
 

Item 9A. Controls and Procedures

102
 

Item 9B. Other Information 

103

PART III.

   
 

Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance 

104
 

Item 11. Executive Compensation 

104
 

Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

104
 

Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

104
 

Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services 

104

PART IV.

   
 

Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules 

105

SIGNATURES 

107
EXHIBIT INDEX 

 

 

Page 2 of 108

 

 

PART I

 

Item 1. Business

 

General

 

Finward Bancorp, an Indiana corporation (the “Bancorp” or “FNWD”), was incorporated on January 31, 1994, and is the holding company for Peoples Bank, an Indiana-chartered commercial bank (the “Bank”). The Bank is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Bancorp. The Bancorp’s business activities include being a holding company for the Bank and the Bank's wholly owned subsidiaries, as well as a holding company for NWIN Risk Management, Inc., a captive insurance company.

 

The Bank is primarily engaged in the business of attracting deposits from the general public and the origination of loans, mostly upon the security of single family residences and commercial real estate, as well as, construction loans and various types of consumer loans, commercial business loans and municipal loans, within its primary market areas of Lake and Porter Counties, in Northwest Indiana, and Cook County, Illinois. In addition, the Bancorp's Wealth Management Group provides estate and retirement planning, guardianships, land trusts, profit sharing and 401(k) retirement plans, IRA and Keogh accounts, investment agency accounts, and serves as the personal representative of estates and acts as trustee for revocable and irrevocable trusts.

 

The Bank’s deposit accounts are insured up to applicable limits by the Deposit Insurance Fund (“DIF”), which is administered by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”), an agency of the federal government. As the holding company for the Bank, the Bancorp is subject to comprehensive examination, supervision and regulation by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (“FRB”), while the Bank is subject to comprehensive examination, supervision and regulation by both the FDIC and the Indiana Department of Financial Institutions (“DFI”). The Bank is also subject to regulation by the FRB governing reserves required to be maintained against certain deposits and other matters. The Bank is also a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank (“FHLB”) of Indianapolis, which is one of the eleven regional banks comprising the system of Federal Home Loan Banks.

 

On January 31, 2022, the Bancorp completed its previously announced acquisition of Royal Financial, Inc., a Delaware corporation (“RYFL”), pursuant to an Agreement and Plan of Merger dated July 28, 2021, between the Bancorp and RYFL (the “Merger Agreement”). Pursuant to the terms of the RYFL Merger Agreement, RYFL merged with and into the Bancorp, with the Bancorp as the surviving corporation (the “RYFL Merger”). Simultaneously with the RYFL Merger, Royal Savings Bank (“Royal Bank”), an Illinois state chartered savings bank and wholly-owned subsidiary of RYFL, merged with and into Peoples Bank, with Peoples Bank as the surviving bank. In connection with the RYFL Merger, each RYFL stockholder holding 101 or more shares of RYFL common stock had the right to receive, at the stockholder’s election, 0.4609 shares of Finward common stock or $20.14 in cash, or a combination of both, for each share of RYFL’s common stock, subject to allocation provisions and adjustment. Stockholders holding fewer than 101 shares of RYFL common stock received $20.14 in cash and no stock consideration for each outstanding share of RYFL common stock. Any fractional shares of Finward common stock that an RYFL stockholder would have otherwise received in the merger were cashed out in the amount of such fraction multiplied by $47.65. The Bancorp issued 795,423 shares of Bancorp common stock to the former RYFL stockholders, and paid cash consideration of approximately $18.7 million. Based upon the closing price of FNWD’s common stock on January 28, 2022, the transaction had an implied valuation of approximately $56.7 million. As a result of the acquisition, the Bank was able to further expand its retail banking network in the South Suburban Chicagoland market, bringing the total number of its full-service banking centers to 30.

 

The Bancorp maintains its corporate office at 9204 Columbia Avenue, Munster, Indiana, from which it oversees the operation of its thirty branch locations. For further information, see “Properties.”

 

Page 3 of 108

 

Forward-Looking Statements

 

Statements contained in this filing on Form 10-K that are not historical facts are forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. The words or phrases “would be,” “will allow,” “intends to,” “will likely result,” “are expected to,” “will continue,” “is anticipated,” “estimate,” “project,” or similar expressions are also intended to identify “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act. The Bancorp cautions readers that forward-looking statements, including without limitation those relating to the Bancorp’s future business prospects, interest income and expense, net income, liquidity, and capital needs are subject to certain risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated in the forward-looking statements due to a number of factors, including those set forth above in “Recent Developments” and below in “Regulation and Supervision” of this Form 10-K.

 

Certain of the statements made in this report are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning and protections of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. All statements other than statements of historical fact, including statements regarding our financial position, business strategy, and the plans and objectives of our management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. You can identify these forward-looking statements through our use of words such as “may,” “will,” “anticipate,” “assume,” “should,” “indicate,” “would,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “expect,” “estimate,” “continue,” “plan,” “point to,” “project,” “could,” “intend,” “target,” and other similar words and expressions relating to the future.

 

Although management believes that the expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are reasonable, actual results may differ materially, and adversely or positively, from the expectations of the Bancorp that are expressed or implied by any forward-looking statement. Risks, uncertainties, and factors that could cause the Bancorp’s actual results to vary materially from those expressed or implied by any forward-looking statement include but are not limited to:

 

 

the significant risks and uncertainties for our business, results of operations, and financial condition, as well as our regulatory capital and liquidity ratios and other regulatory requirements caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, which will depend on several factors, including the scope and duration of the pandemic, its influence on financial markets, the effectiveness of our remote work arrangements and staffing levels in branches and other operational facilities, and actions taken by governmental authorities and other third parties in response to the pandemic;

 

 

the use of proceeds of future offerings of securities;

 

 

capital management activities, including possible future sales of new securities, or possible repurchases or redemptions by the Bancorp of outstanding debt or equity securities;

 

 

changes in asset quality and credit risk;

 

 

our ability to sustain revenue and earnings growth;

 

 

changes in interest rates, market liquidity, and capital markets, as well as the magnitude of such changes, which may reduce net interest margins;

 

 

inflation;

 

 

customer acceptance of the Bancorp’s products and services;

 

 

customer borrowing, repayment, investment, and deposit practices;

 

 

customer disintermediation;

 

Page 4 of 108

 

 

the introduction, withdrawal, success, and timing of asset/liability management strategies or of mergers and acquisitions and other business initiatives and strategies;

 

 

competitive conditions;

 

 

our ability to realize cost savings or revenues or to implement integration plans and other consequences associated with mergers, acquisitions, and divestitures;

 

 

changes in fiscal, monetary, and tax policies;

 

 

factors that may cause the Bancorp to incur impairment charges on its investment securities;

 

 

electronic, cyber, and physical security breaches;

 

 

claims and litigation liabilities, including related costs, expenses, settlements, and judgments, or the outcome of matters before regulatory agencies, whether pending or commencing in the future;

 

 

changes in accounting principles and interpretations;

 

 

economic conditions;

 

 

the impact, extent, and timing of technological changes, capital management activities, and other actions of the Federal Reserve Board and legislative and regulatory actions and reforms; and

 

 

other factors and risk described in our other filings we make with the SEC under the Exchange Act.

 

In addition to the above factors, we also caution that the actual amounts and timing of any future common stock dividends or share repurchases will be subject to various factors, including our capital position, financial performance, capital impacts of strategic initiatives, market conditions, and regulatory and accounting considerations, as well as any other factors that our Board of Directors deems relevant in making such a determination. Therefore, there can be no assurance that we will repurchase shares or pay any dividends to holders of our common stock, or as to the amount of any such repurchases or dividends. Further, statements about the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, operations, financial performance, and prospects may constitute forward-looking statements and are subject to the risk that the actual impacts may differ, possibly materially, from what is reflected in those forward-looking statements due to factors and future developments that are uncertain, unpredictable, and in many cases beyond our control, including the scope and duration of the pandemic, actions taken by governmental authorities in response to the pandemic, and the direct and indirect impact of the pandemic on our customers, third parties, and us.

 

Because such forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties, actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied by such statements. The foregoing list of important factors is not exclusive and you are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this report or, in the case of documents incorporated by reference, the dates of those documents. We do not undertake to update any forward-looking statements, whether written or oral, that may be made from time to time by or on behalf of us. The “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Item 7 of this Form 10-K lists some of the factors that could cause the Bancorp’s actual results to vary materially from those expressed in or implied by any forward-looking statements. We direct your attention to this discussion. Other risks and uncertainties that could affect the Bancorp’s future performance are set forth below in Item 1A, “Risk Factors.”

 

Page 5 of 108

 

Lending Activities

 

General. The Bancorp’s product offerings include residential mortgage loans, construction loans, commercial real estate loans, consumer loans, commercial business loans and loans to municipalities. The Bancorp’s lending strategy stresses quality growth, product diversification, and competitive and profitable pricing. While lending efforts include both fixed and adjustable rate products, the focus has been on products with adjustable rates and/or shorter terms to maturity. It is management’s goal that all programs are marketed effectively to our primary market area.

 

The Bancorp is primarily a portfolio lender. Mortgage banking activities are limited to the sale of fixed rate mortgage loans with contractual maturities generally exceeding fifteen years and greater. These loans are sold, on a case-by-case basis, in the secondary market as part of the Bancorp’s efforts to manage interest rate risk. All loan sales are made to Freddie Mac or to the Federal Home Loan Bank of Indianapolis. All loans held for sale are recorded at the lower of cost or market value.

 

Under Indiana Law, an Indiana bank generally may not make any loan to a borrower or its related entities if the total of all such loans by the bank exceeds 15% of its unimpaired capital and unimpaired surplus (plus up to an additional 10% of unimpaired capital and unimpaired surplus, in the case of loans fully collateralized by readily marketable collateral); provided, however, that certain specified types of loans are exempted from these limitations or subject to different limitations. The maximum amount that the Bank could have loaned to one borrower and the borrower’s related entities at December 31, 2021, under the 15% of capital and surplus limitation was approximately $22,029,000. At December 31, 2021, the Bank had no loans that exceeded the regulatory limitations.

 

At December 31, 2021, there were no concentrations of loans in any type of industry that exceeded 10% of total loans that were not otherwise disclosed as a loan category.

 

Page 6 of 108

 

Loan Portfolio. The following table sets forth selected data relating to the composition of the Bancorp’s loan portfolio by type of loan at the end of each of the last two years. The amounts are stated in thousands (000’s).

 

 

   

December 31, 2021

   

December 31, 2020

 

Loans secured by real estate:

               

Residential real estate

  $ 260,134     $ 286,048  

Home equity

    34,612       39,233  

Commercial real estate

    317,145       298,257  

Construction and land development

    123,822       93,562  

Multifamily

    61,194       50,571  

Farmland

    -       215  

Total loans secured by real estate

    796,907       767,886  

Commercial business

    115,772       158,140  

Consumer

    582       1,025  

Manufactured homes

    37,887       24,232  

Government

    8,991       10,142  

Loans receivable

    960,139       961,425  

Less:

               

Net deferred loan origination costs

    6,810       3,871  

Undisbursed loan funds

    (229 )     (150 )

Loans receivable, net of deferred fees and costs

  $ 966,720     $ 965,146  

 

Page 7 of 108

 

 

Loan Maturity Schedule. The following table sets forth certain information at December 31, 2021, regarding the dollar amount of loans in the Bancorp’s portfolio based on their contractual terms to maturity. Demand loans, loans having no schedule of repayments and no stated maturity, and overdrafts are reported as due in one year or less. Contractual principal repayments of loans do not necessarily reflect the actual term of the loan portfolio. The average life of mortgage loans is substantially less than their contractual terms because of loan prepayments and because of enforcement of due-on-sale clauses, which give the Bancorp the right to declare a loan immediately due and payable in the event, among other things, that the borrower sells the property subject to the mortgage. The amounts are stated in thousands (000’s).

 

 

   

Maturing

   

After one

   

After five

                 
   

within

   

but within

   

but within

   

After

         
   

one year

   

five years

   

fifteen years

   

fifteen years

   

Total

 

Residential real estate

  $ 5,968     $ 13,282     $ 91,554     $ 148,838       259,642  

Home equity

    3,763       21,801       8,742       348       34,654  

Commercial real estate

    11,105       70,080       233,678       2,282       317,145  

Construction and land development

    29,831       27,747       45,791       20,453       123,822  

Multifamily

    593       11,992       48,609       -       61,194  

Farmland

    -       -       -       -       -  

Consumer

    571       22       -       -       593  

Manufactured Homes

    23       449       10,774       34,594       45,840  

Commercial business

    40,892       57,500       15,922       525       114,839  

Government

    325       3,706       4,960       -       8,991  

Total loans receivable

  $ 93,071     $ 206,579     $ 460,030     $ 207,040     $ 966,720  

 

The following table sets forth the dollar amount of all loans due after one year from December 31, 2021, which have predetermined interest rates or have floating or adjustable interest rates. The amounts are stated in thousands (000’s).

 

   

Predetermined

   

Floating or

         
   

rates

   

adjustable rates

   

Total

 

Residential real estate

  $ 189,992     $ 63,682       253,674  

Home equity

    25,965       4,926       30,891  

Commercial real estate

    25,036       281,004       306,040  

Construction and land development

    27,365       66,626       93,991  

Multifamily

    15,827       44,774       60,601  

Farmland

    -       -       -  

Consumer

    22       -       22  

Manufactured Homes

    45,817       -       45,817  

Commercial business

    57,197       16,750       73,947  

Government

    8,666       -       8,666  

Total loans receivable

  $ 395,887     $ 477,762     $ 873,649  

 

Lending Area. The primary lending area of the Bancorp encompasses Lake County in northwest Indiana and Cook County in northeast Illinois, where collectively a majority of loan activity is concentrated. The Bancorp is also an active lender in Porter County, and to a lesser extent, LaPorte, Newton, and Jasper counties in Indiana; and DuPage, Lake, and Will counties in Illinois.

 

Loan Origination Fees. All loan origination and commitment fees, as well as incremental direct loan origination costs, are deferred and amortized into income as yield adjustments.

 

Loan Origination Procedure. The primary sources for loan originations are referrals from commercial customers, real estate brokers and builders, solicitations by the Bancorp’s lending and retail staff, and advertising of loan programs and rates. The Bancorp employs no staff appraisers. All appraisals are performed by fee appraisers that have been approved by the Board of Directors and who meet all federal guidelines and state licensing and certification requirements.

 

Designated officers have authorities, established by the Board of Directors, to approve loans. Loans up to $4,000,000 are approved by the loan officers’ loan committee. Loans from $4,000,000 to $7,000,000 are approved by the senior officers’ loan committee (SOLC). Loans from $7,000,000 to $15,000,000 are approved the executive officer’s loan committee. All loans in excess of $15,000,000, up to the legal lending limit of the Bank, must be approved by the Bank’s Board of Directors or its Credit Committee. (All members of the Bank’s Board of Directors and Credit Committee are also members of the Bancorp’s Board of Directors and Credit Committee, respectively.) Certain loan renewals and extensions may not require approval by the Board of Directors or the Credit Committee as long as there is no material change, credit downgrade, significant change in borrower or guarantor status, material release or change in collateral value or the eligible loan renewal or extension is not outside the current concentration limits set by the Board of Directors. The maximum in-house legal lending limit as set by the Board of Directors is the lower of 10% of the Bank’s risk based capital or $15,000,000. Requests that exceed this amount will be considered on a case-by-case basis, after taking into consideration the legal lending limit, by specific Board action. The Bank will not extend credit to any of its executive officers, directors, or principal shareholders or to any related interest of that person, except in compliance with the insider lending restrictions of Regulation O under the Federal Reserve Act and in an amount that, when aggregated with all other extensions of credit to that person, exceeds $1.000,000 unless: (1) the extension of credit has been approved in advance by a majority of the entire Board of Directors of the Bank, and (2) the interested party has abstained from participating directly or indirectly in the voting.

 

Page 8 of 108

 

All loans secured by personal property must be covered by insurance in an amount sufficient to cover the full amount of the loan. All loans secured by real estate must be covered by insurance in an amount sufficient to cover the full amount of the loan or restore the property to its original state. First mortgage loans must be covered by a lender’s title insurance policy in the amount of the loan.

 

The Current Lending Programs

 

Residential Mortgage Loans. The primary lending activity of the Bancorp has been the granting of conventional mortgage loans to enable borrowers to purchase existing homes, refinance existing homes, or construct new homes. Conventional loans are made up to a maximum of 97% of the purchase price or appraised value, whichever is less. For loans made in excess of 80% of value, private mortgage insurance is generally required in an amount sufficient to reduce the Bancorp’s exposure to 80% or less of the appraised value of the property. Loans insured by private mortgage insurance companies can be made for up to 97% of value. During 2021, 77% of mortgage loans closed were conventional loans with borrowers having 20% or more equity in the property. This type of loan does not require private mortgage insurance because of the borrower’s level of equity investment.

 

Fixed rate loans currently originated generally conform to Freddie Mac guidelines for loans purchased under the one‑to‑four family program. Loan interest rates are determined based on secondary market yield requirements and local market conditions. Fixed rate mortgage loans with contractual maturities generally exceeding fifteen years and greater may be sold and/or classified as held for sale to control exposure to interest rate risk.

 

The 15 year mortgage loan program has gained wide acceptance in the Bancorp’s primary market area. As a result of the shortened maturity of these loans, this product has been priced below the comparable 20 and 30 year loan offerings. Mortgage applicants for 15 year loans tend to have a larger than normal down payment; this, coupled with the larger principal and interest payment amount, has caused the 15 year mortgage loan portfolio to consist, to a significant extent, of second time home buyers whose underwriting qualifications tend to be above average.

 

The Bancorp’s Adjustable Rate Mortgage Loans (“ARMs”) include offerings that reprice annually or are “Mini-Fixed.” The “Mini‑Fixed” mortgage reprices annually after a one, three, five, seven or ten year period. ARM originations totaled $11.5 million for 2021 and $9.9 million for 2020. During 2021, ARMs represented 6.1% of total mortgage loan originations. The ability of the Bancorp to successfully market ARM’s depends upon loan demand, prevailing interest rates, volatility of interest rates, public acceptance of such loans and terms offered by competitors.

 

Construction Loans. Construction loans on residential properties are made primarily to individuals and contractors who are under contract with individual purchasers. These loans are personally guaranteed by the borrower. The maximum loan-to-value ratio is 89% of either the current appraised value or the cost of construction, whichever is less. Residential construction loans are typically made for periods of six months to one year.

 

Loans are also made for the construction of commercial properties. All such loans are made in accordance with well-defined underwriting standards. Generally if the loans are not owner occupied, these types of loans require proof of intent to lease and a confirmed end-loan takeout. In general, loans made do not exceed 80% of the appraised value of the property. Commercial construction loans are typically made for periods not to exceed two years or date of occupancy, whichever is less.

 

Page 9 of 108

 

Commercial Real Estate Loans. Commercial real estate loans are typically made to a maximum of 80% of the appraised value. Such loans are generally made on an adjustable rate basis. These loans are typically made for terms of 15 to 20 years. Loans with an amortizing term exceeding 15 years normally have a balloon feature calling for a full repayment within seven to ten years from the date of the loan. The balloon feature affords the Bancorp the opportunity to restructure the loan if economic conditions so warrant. Commercial real estate loans include loans secured by commercial rental units, apartments, condominium developments, small shopping centers, owner occupied commercial/industrial properties, hospitality units and other retail and commercial developments.

 

While commercial real estate lending is generally considered to involve a higher degree of risk than single‑family residential lending due to the concentration of principal in a limited number of loans and the effects of general economic conditions on real estate developers and managers, the Bancorp has endeavored to reduce this risk in several ways. In originating commercial real estate loans, the Bancorp considers the feasibility of the project, the financial strength of the borrowers and lessees, the managerial ability of the borrowers, the location of the project and the economic environment. Management evaluates the debt coverage ratio and analyzes the reliability of cash flows, as well as the quality of earnings. All such loans are made in accordance with well-defined underwriting standards and are generally supported by personal guarantees, which represent a secondary source of repayment.

 

Loans for the construction of commercial properties are generally located within an area permitting physical inspection and regular review of business records. Projects financed outside of the Bancorp’s primary lending area generally involve borrowers and guarantors who are or were previous customers of the Bancorp or projects that are underwritten according to the Bank’s underwriting standards.

 

Consumer Loans. The Bancorp offers consumer loans to individuals for personal, household or family purposes. Consumer loans are either secured by adequate collateral, or unsecured. Unsecured loans are based on the strength of the applicant’s financial condition. All borrowers must meet current underwriting standards. The consumer loan program includes both fixed and variable rate products.

 

Home Equity Line of Credit. The Bancorp offers a fixed and variable rate revolving line of credit secured by the equity in the borrower’s home. Both products offer an interest only option where the borrower pays interest only on the outstanding balance each month. Equity lines will typically require a second mortgage appraisal and a second mortgage lender’s title insurance policy. Loans are generally made up to a maximum of 89% of the appraised value of the property less any outstanding liens.

 

Home Improvement Loans and Equity LoansFixed Term. Home improvement and equity loans are made up to a maximum of 85% of the appraised value of the improved property, less any outstanding liens. These loans are offered on both a fixed and variable rate basis with a maximum term of 240 months. All home equity loans are made on a direct basis to borrowers.

 

Manufactured Homes. The Bancorp purchases fixed rate closed loans from a third party that are subject to Bancorp’s underwriting requirements and secured by manufactured homes. The maturity date on these loans can range up to 25 years. In addition, these loans have a reserve account held at the Bancorp, further detail regarding this reserve can be found in Note 4 – Loans Receivable.

 

Commercial Business Loans. Although the Bancorp’s priority in extending various types of commercial business loans changes from time to time, the basic considerations in determining the makeup of the commercial business loan portfolio are economic factors, regulatory requirements and money market conditions. The Bancorp seeks commercial loan relationships from the local business community and from its present customers. Conservative lending policies based upon sound credit analysis governs the extension of commercial credit. The following loans, although not inclusive, are considered preferable for the Bancorp’s commercial loan portfolio, loans collateralized by liquid assets; loans secured by general use machinery and equipment; secured short‑term working capital loans to established businesses secured by business assets; short‑term loans with established sources of repayment and secured by sufficient equity and real estate; and unsecured loans to customers whose character and capacity to repay are firmly established.

 

Page 10 of 108

 

Government Loans. The Bancorp is permitted to purchase non-rated municipal securities, tax anticipation notes, and warrants within the local market area.

 

NonPerforming Assets, Asset Classification and Provision for Loan Losses

 

Loans are reviewed on a regular basis and are generally placed on a non‑accrual status when, in the opinion of management, serious doubt exists as to the collectability of a loan. Loans are generally placed on non‑accrual status when either principal or interest is 90 days or more past due. Consumer non-residential loans are generally charged off when the loan becomes over 120 days delinquent. Interest accrued and unpaid at the time a loan is placed on non‑accrual status is charged against interest income. Subsequent payments are either applied to the outstanding principal balance, tax and insurance reserve or recorded as interest income, depending on the assessment of the ultimate collectability of the loan.

 

The Bancorp’s mortgage loan collection procedures provide that, when a mortgage loan is 15 days or more delinquent, the borrower will be contacted by mail and payment requested. If the delinquency continues, subsequent efforts will be made to contact the delinquent borrower. In certain instances, the Bancorp will recast the loan or grant a limited moratorium on loan payments to enable the borrower to reorganize his, her, or its financial affairs. If the loan continues in a delinquent status for 120 days, the Bancorp will generally initiate foreclosure proceedings. Any property acquired as the result of foreclosure or by voluntary transfer of property made to avoid foreclosure is classified as foreclosed real estate until such time as it is sold or otherwise disposed of by the Bancorp. Foreclosed real estate is recorded at fair value at the date of foreclosure. At foreclosure, any write-down of the property is charged to the allowance for loan losses. Costs relating to improvement of property are capitalized, whereas holding costs are expensed. Valuations are periodically performed by management, and a valuation allowance is established by a charge to operations if the carrying value of a property exceeds its estimated fair value less selling costs. Subsequent gains or losses on disposition, including expenses incurred in connection with the disposition, are charged to operations. Collection procedures for consumer loans provide that when a consumer loan becomes ten days delinquent, the borrower will be contacted by mail and payment requested. If the delinquency continues, subsequent efforts will be made to contact the delinquent borrower. In certain instances, the Bancorp may grant a payment deferral. If a loan continues to be delinquent after 60 days and all collection efforts have been exhausted, the Bancorp will initiate legal proceedings. Collection procedures for commercial business loans provide that when a commercial loan becomes ten days delinquent, the borrower will be contacted by mail and payment requested. If the delinquency continues, subsequent efforts will be made to contact the delinquent borrower pursuant to the commercial loan collection policy. In certain instances, the Bancorp may grant a payment deferral or restructure the loan. Once it has been determined that collection efforts are unsuccessful, the Bancorp will initiate legal proceedings.

 

Page 11 of 108

 

The following table sets forth information regarding the Bancorp’s non-performing assets as of December 31, for each period indicated. The amounts are stated in thousands (000’s).

 

   

2021

   

2020

 

Loans accounted for on a non-accrual basis:

         

Real estate:

               

Residential

  $ 4,651     $ 6,390  

Commercial

    940       5,390  

Multifamily

    455       504  

Home Equity

    623       476  

Commercial business

    387       1,039  

Total

  $ 7,056     $ 13,799  
                 

Accruing loans which are contractually past due 90 days or more:

 

Real estate:

               

Commercial

  $ 91     $ 437  

Residential

    31       80  

Home equity

    34       29  

Construction and land development

    -       20  

Commercial business

    49       -  

Total

  $ 205     $ 566  
                 

Loans that qualify as troubled debt restructurings and accruing:

 

Real estate:

               

Commercial

  $ 748     $ 872  

Residential

    -       542  

Commercial business

    591       61  

Home Equity

    83       -  

Total

  $ 1,422     $ 1,475  
                 

Total of non-accrual, 90 days past due and accruing, and restructurings

  $ 8,683     $ 15,840  
                 

Ratio of non-performing loans to total assets

    0.51 %     1.06 %

Ratio of non-performing loans to total loans

    0.76 %     1.49 %

* non-performing loans include non-accrual loans and accruing loans which are contractually past due 90 days or more

 
                 
                 

Foreclosed real estate

  $ -     $ 538  

Ratio of foreclosed real estate to total assets

    0.00 %     0.04 %
                 

Trust preferred securities

  $ 992     $ 929  

Ratio of trust preferred securities to total assets

    0.06 %     0.06 %

 

During 2021, gross interest income of $665 thousand would have been recorded on loans accounted for on a non-accrual basis if the loans had been current throughout the period. Interest on such loans included in income during the period amounted to $12 thousand.

 

Federal regulations require banks to classify their own loans and to establish appropriate general and specific allowances, subject to regulatory review. These regulations are designed to encourage management to evaluate loans on a case-by-case basis and to discourage automatic classifications. Loans classified as substandard or doubtful must be evaluated by management to determine loan loss reserves. Loans classified as loss must either be written off or reserved for by a specific allowance. Amounts reported in the general loan loss reserve are included in the calculation of the Bancorp’s total risk-based capital requirement (to the extent that the amount does not exceed 1.25% of total risk-based assets), but are not included in Tier 1 leverage ratio calculations and Tier 1 risk-based capital requirements.

 

Page 12 of 108

 

Substandard loans include non-performing loans and potential problem loans, where information about possible credit issues or other conditions causes management to question the ability of such borrowers to comply with loan covenants or repayment terms. No loans were internally classified as doubtful or loss at December 31, 2021 or December 31, 2020.

 

The Bancorp's substandard loans are summarized below:

 

(Dollars in thousands)

               

Loan Segment

 

December 31,

2021

   

December 31,

2020

 

Residential real estate

  $ 3,722     $ 6,387  

Home equity

    632       495  

Commercial real estate

    3,562       8,180  

Construction and land development

    -       -  

Multifamily

    384       504  

Farmland

    -       -  

Commercial business

    387       1,061  

Consumer

    -       -  

Manufactured homes

    -       -  

Government

    -       -  

Total

  $ 8,687     $ 16,627  

 

In addition to identifying and monitoring non-performing and other classified loans, management maintains a list of special mention loans. Special mention loans represent loans management is closely monitoring due to one or more factors that may cause the loan to become classified as substandard.

 

The Bancorp's special mention loans are summarized below:

 

(Dollars in thousands)

               

Loan Segment

 

December 31,

2021

   

December 31,

2020

 

Residential real estate

  $ 2,940     $ 3,539  

Home equity

    415       761  

Commercial real estate

    12,011       11,983  

Construction and land development

    3,630       3,652  

Multifamily

    153       1,408  

Farmland

    -       -  

Commercial business

    1,915       1,341  

Consumer

    -       -  

Manufactured homes

    59       -  

Government

    -       -  

Total

  $ 21,123     $ 22,684  

 

A loan is considered impaired when, based on current information and events, it is probable that a borrower will be unable to pay all amounts due according to the contractual terms of the loan agreement. Typically, management does not individually classify smaller-balance homogeneous loans, such as residential mortgages or consumer loans, as impaired, unless they are troubled debt restructurings.

 

Purchased loans acquired in a business combination are recorded at estimated fair value on their purchase date. Purchased loans with evidence of credit quality deterioration since origination are considered purchased credit impaired loans. Expected future cash flows at the purchase date in excess of the fair value of loans are recorded as interest income over the life of the loans if the timing and amount of the future cash flows is reasonably estimable (“accretable yield”). The difference between contractually required payments and the cash flows expected to be collected at acquisition is referred to as the non-accretable difference and represents probable losses in the portfolio. In determining the acquisition date fair value of purchased credit impaired loans, and in subsequent accounting, the Bancorp aggregates these purchased loans into pools of loans by common risk characteristics, such as credit risk rating and loan type. Subsequent to the purchase date, increases in cash flows over those expected at the purchase date are recognized as interest income prospectively. Subsequent decreases to the expected cash flows will generally result in a provision for loan losses.

 

Page 13 of 108

 

 

The Bancorp's impaired loans, including purchased credit impaired loans, are summarized below:

 

(Dollars in thousands)

               

Loan Segment

 

December 31,

2021

   

December 31,

2020

 

Residential real estate

  $ 1,771     $ 2,165  

Home equity

    284       353  

Commercial real estate

    1,600       6,341  

Construction and land development

    -       -  

Multifamily

    556       716  

Farmland

    -       -  

Commercial business

    1,597       2,246  

Consumer

    -       -  

Manufactured homes

    -       -  

Government

    -       -  

Total

  $ 5,808     $ 11,821  

 

At times, the Bancorp will modify the terms of a loan to forego a portion of interest or principal or reduce the interest rate on the loan to a rate materially less than market rates, or materially extend the maturity date of a loan as part of a troubled debt restructuring. The valuation basis for the Bancorp’s troubled debt restructurings is based on the present value of expected future cash flows; unless consistent cash flows are not present, then the fair value of the collateral securing the loan is the basis for valuation.

 

The Bancorp's troubled debt restructured loans are summarized below:

 

(Dollars in thousands)

                               
   

December 31, 2021

   

December 31, 2020

 

Loan Segment

 

Number of Loans

   

Recorded Investment

   

Number of Loans

   

Recorded Investment

 

Residential real estate

    5     $ 342       8     $ 614  

Home equity

    3       83       7       187  

Commercial real estate

    3       747       4       872  

Construction and land development

    -       -       -       -  

Multifamily

    -       -       -       -  

Farmland

    -       -       -       -  

Commercial business

    2       694       6       448  

Consumer

    -       -       -       -  

Manufactured homes

    -       -       -       -  

Government

    -       -       -       -  

Total

    13     $ 1,866       25     $ 2,121  

 

The decrease in nonperforming, impaired, and substandard loans as of December 31, 2021, is related to the strategic sale of a single large commercial real estate loan, that operates a hotel, totaling $5.1 million. Nonperforming loans at December 31, 2021, also decreased due to the removal of various residential real estate loans from nonaccrual status totaling $2.9 million. Substandard loans at December 31, 2021, also decreased due to the removal of various residential real estate loans totaling $2.7 million. Impaired loans at December 31, 2021, also decreased due to the removal of eight commercial business or commercial real estate customers with loans totaling $623 thousand due to loan pay off or refinance. The decrease in special mention loans as of December 31, 2021, is due to the removal of six commercial business, multifamily or commercial real estate customers with loans totaling $2.5 million because of loan risk rating change or loan pay off and the removal of various residential real estate and home equity loans totaling $945 thousand which was offset by the addition of seven commercial real estate or commercial business customers with loans totaling $2.9 million.

 

Page 14 of 108

 

The table that follows sets forth the allowance for loan losses and related ratios for the periods indicated. The amounts are stated in thousands (000’s).

 

 

   

2021

   

2020

 

Balance at beginning of period

  $ 12,458     $ 8,999  

Loans charged-off:

               

Real estate residential

    (33 )     (2 )

Commercial real estate

    (530 )     (97 )

Commercial business

    (158 )     (158 )

Consumer

    (29 )     (29 )

Total charge-offs

    (750 )     (286 )

Recoveries:

               

Residential real estate

    82       27  

Commercial real estate

    -       -  

Commercial business

    36       17  

Consumer

    8       14  

Total recoveries

    126       58  

Net (charge-offs) / recoveries

    (624 )     (228 )

Provision for loan losses

    1,509       3,687  

Balance at end of period

  $ 13,343     $ 12,458  
                 

ALL to loans outstanding

    1.38 %     1.29 %

ALL to nonperforming loans

    183.76 %     86.72 %

Net charge-offs / recoveries to average loans outstanding during the period

    -0.06 %     -0.02 %

Nonaccruing loans to total loans

    0.73 %     1.43 %

 

The improvement in the ALL to nonperforming loan and nonaccruing loans to total loans ratios is the result of the strategic sale of one large commercial real estate loan, which operates a hotel, totaling an impact of $5.1 million.

 

The following table shows the allocation of the allowance for loan losses at December 31, for the dates indicated. The dollar amounts are stated in thousands (000’s). The percent columns represent the percentage of loans in each category to total loans.

 

 

   

2021

   

2020

 
    $    

%

    $    

%

 

Real estate loans:

                               

Residential

    2,837       27.2       2,487       33.8  

Commercial and other dwelling

    8,482       57.8       7,437       45.6  

Consumer loans

    15       3.5       26       3.3  

Commercial business and other

    2,009       11.5       2,508       17.3  

Total

    13,343       100.0       12,458       100.0  

 

Page 15 of 108

 

 

Investment Activities

 

The primary objective of the investment portfolio is to provide for the liquidity needs of the Bancorp and to contribute to profitability by providing a stable flow of dependable earnings. Securities can be classified as either held-to-maturity (HTM) or available-for-sale (AFS) at the time of purchase. No securities are classified as trading or as held-to-maturity. AFS securities are those the Bancorp may decide to sell if needed for liquidity, asset-liability management or other reasons. During 2020, the Bancorp did not hold as investments any derivative instruments and was not involved in hedging activities as defined by Accounting Standards Codification Topic 815 Derivatives and Hedging. It has been the policy of the Bancorp to invest its excess cash in U.S. government agency securities, mortgage-backed securities, collateralized mortgage obligations, and municipal securities. In addition, short-term funds are generally invested as interest bearing balances in financial institutions and federal funds. At December 31, 2021, the Bancorp’s investment portfolio totaled $526.9 million. In addition, the Bancorp had $3.2 million in FHLB stock.

 

The table below shows the carrying values of the components of the investment securities portfolio at December 31, on the dates indicated. The amounts are stated in thousands (000’s).

 

   

2021

   

2020

 

Money market fund

  $ -     $ 52,941  

U.S. treasury securities:

               

Available-for-sale

    400       -  

U.S. government sponsored agencies:

               

Available-for-sale

    8,669       7,860  

Collateralized Mortgage Obligations (1): and Mortgage-backed securities

               

Available-for-sale

    184,701       154,736  

Municipal Securities:

               

Available-for-sale

    332,127       194,203  

Collateralized Debt Securities:

               

Available-for-sale

    992       929  

Totals

  $ 526,889     $ 410,669  

 

The contractual maturities and weighted average yields for the U.S. government securities, agency securities, municipal securities, and trust preferred securities at December 31, 2021, are summarized in the table below. Securities not due at a single maturity date, such as mortgage-backed securities and collateralized mortgage obligations are not included in the following table. The carrying values are stated in thousands (000’s).

 

The weighted average yields were calculated by multiplying each carrying value by its yield and dividing the sum of these results by the total carrying values. Yields presented are not on a tax-equivalent basis.

 

   

Within 1 Year

   

1 - 5 Years

   

5 - 10 Years

   

After 10 Years

   

Total

 
   

Amount

   

Yield

   

Amount

   

Yield

   

Amount

   

Yield

   

Amount

   

Yield

   

Amount

 

U.S. government sponsored entities:

  $ -       0.00 %   $ -       0.00 %   $ 8,669       1.00 %   $ -       0.00 %   $ 8,669  

AFS

                                                                       

U.S. treasury securities:

                                                                       

AFS

    400       1.25 %     -       0.00 %     -       0.00 %     -       0.00 %     400  

Municipal Securities:

                                                                       

AFS

    192       0.00 %     1,765       4.20 %     21,177       3.39 %     308,993       2.90 %     332,127  

Trust Preferred Securities:

                                                                       

AFS

    -       0.00 %     -       0.00 %     -       0.00 %     992       0.94 %     992  

Totals

  $ 592       0.84 %   $ 1,765       4.20 %   $ 29,846       2.70 %   $ 309,985       2.89 %   $ 342,188  

 

The Bancorp currently holds two trust preferred securities and the securities’ quarterly interest payments have been placed in “payment in kind” status. Payment in kind status results in a temporary delay in the payment of interest. As a result of a delay in the collection of the interest payments, management placed these securities in non-accrual status. At December 31, 2021, the cost basis of the two trust preferred securities on non-accrual status totaled $2.2 million.

 

Page 16 of 108

 

Sources of Funds

 

General. Deposits are the major source of the Bancorp’s funds for lending and other investment purposes. In addition to deposits, the Bancorp derives funds from maturing investment securities and certificates of deposit, dividend receipts from the investment portfolio, loan principal repayments, repurchase agreements, advances from the Federal Home Loan Bank of Indianapolis (FHLB) and other borrowings. Loan repayments are a relatively stable source of funds, while deposit inflows and outflows are significantly influenced by general interest rates and money market conditions. Borrowings may be used on a short-term basis to compensate for reductions in the availability of other sources of funds. They may also be used on a longer-term basis for general business purposes. The Bancorp uses repurchase agreements, as well as a line-of-credit and advances from the FHLB for borrowings. At December 31, 2021, the Bancorp had $14.6 million in repurchase agreements. The Bancorp had no other borrowed funds as of December 31, 2021.

 

Deposits. Retail and commercial deposits are attracted principally from within the Bancorp’s primary market area. The Bancorp offers a broad selection of deposit instruments including non-interest bearing demand accounts, interest bearing demand accounts, savings accounts, money market deposit accounts, certificate accounts and retirement savings plans. Deposit accounts vary as to terms, with the principal differences being the minimum balance required, the time period the funds must remain on deposit and the interest rate. Certificate account offerings typically range in maturity from ten days to 42 months. The deregulation of federal controls on insured deposits has allowed the Bancorp to be more competitive in obtaining funds and to be flexible in meeting the threat of net deposit outflows. The Bancorp does not obtain funds through brokers.

 

The following table presents the average daily amount of deposits and average rates paid on such deposits for the years indicated. The amounts are stated in thousands (000’s).

 

 

   

2021

   

2020

 
   

Amount

   

Rate %

   

Amount

   

Rate %

 

Noninterest bearing demand deposits

  $ 280,900       -     $ 236,400       -  

Interest bearing demand deposits

    297,012       0.08       240,028       0.13  

MMDA accounts

    253,468       0.13       233,904       0.36  

Savings accounts

    277,839       0.06       230,579       0.07  

Certificates of deposit

    271,882       0.46       298,403       1.34  

Total deposits

  $ 1,381,101       0.18     $ 1,239,314       0.43  

 

As of December 31, 2021, and 2020, approximately $452.0 million and $375.7 million, respectively, of our deposit portfolio was uninsured. The uninsured amounts are estimates based on the methodologies and assumptions used for the Bank's regulatory reporting requirements.

 

The following table sets forth the portion of the Bank's time deposits, by account, that are in excess of the FDIC insurance limit, by remaining time until maturity, as of December 31, 2021 (dollars in thousands).

 

3 months or less

  $ 12,705  

Over 3 months through 6 months

    6,478  

Over 6 months through 12 months

    1,449  

Over 12 months

    16,250  

Total

  $ 36,882  

 

Borrowings. Borrowed money is used on a short-term basis to compensate for reductions in the availability of other sources of funds and is generally accomplished through repurchase agreements, as well as, through a line of credit and advances from the FHLB. Repurchase agreements generally mature within one year and are generally secured by U.S. government securities or U.S. agency securities, under the Bancorp’s control. FHLB advances with maturities ranging from one year to five years are used to fund securities and loans of comparable duration, as well as to reduce the impact that movements in short-term interest rates have on the Bancorp’s overall cost of funds. Fixed rate advances are payable at maturity, with a prepayment penalty.

 

Page 17 of 108

 

The following tables set forth certain information regarding borrowing and repurchase agreements by the Bancorp at the end of and during the periods indicated. The amounts are stated in thousands (000’s).

 

   

At December 31,

 

Repurchase agreements:

 

2021

   

2020

 

Balance

  $ 14,581     $ 13,711  

Securities underlying the agreements:

               

Ending carrying amount

    14,885       23,860  

Ending fair value

    14,885       23,860  

Weighted average rate (1)

    0.26 %     0.32 %

 

   

For year ended December 31,

 
   

2021

   

2020

 

Highest month-end balance

  $ 24,514     $ 21,100  

Average outstanding balance

    17,789       16,975  

Weighted average rate on securities sold under agreements to repurchase (2)

    0.26 %     0.58 %

 

   

At December 31,

 
   

2021

   

2020

 

Fixed rate short-term advances from the FHLB

  $ -     $ 6,000  

Federal funds purchased

    -       149  

Fixed rate long-term advances from the FHLB

    -       -  

Total borrowings

  $ -     $ 6,149  

 

________________________

(1) The weighted average rate for each period is calculated by weighting the principal balances outstanding for the various interest rates.

 

(2) The weighted average rate is calculated by dividing the interest expense for the period by the average daily balances of securities sold under agreements to repurchase for the period.

 

Wealth Management Group

 

The Bancorp's Wealth Management Group provides estate and retirement planning, guardianships, land trusts, profit sharing and 401(k) retirement plans, IRA and Keogh accounts, investment agency accounts, and serves as personal representative of estates and acts as trustee for revocable and irrevocable trusts. At December 31, 2021, the market value of the Wealth Management Group’s assets totaled $392.7 million, an increase of $41.7 million, compared to December 31, 2020.

 

Page 18 of 108

 

Analysis of Profitability and Key Operating Ratios

 

Financial Ratios and the Analysis of Changes in Net Interest Income.

 

The tables below set forth certain financial ratios of the Bancorp for the periods indicated:

 

   

Year ended December 31,

 
   

2021

   

2020

 

Return on average assets

    0.95 %     1.12 %

Return on average equity

    9.61 %     11.04 %

Average equity-to-average assets ratio

    9.89 %     10.11 %

Dividend payout ratio

    28.84 %     26.96 %

 

   

At December 31,

 
   

2021

   

2020

 

Total stockholders’ equity to total assets

    9.66 %     10.14 %

 

Page 19 of 108

 

The average balance sheet amounts, the related interest income or expense, and average rates earned or paid are presented in the following table.

The amounts are stated in thousands (000's).

 

 

   

Year ended December 31, 2021

   

Year ended December 31, 2020

 
           

Interest

                   

Interest

         
   

Average

   

Income/

   

Average

   

Average

   

Income/

   

Average

 
   

Balance

   

Expense

   

Rate

   

Balance

   

Expense

   

Rate

 

Assets:

                                               
                                                 

Interest bearing balances in financial institutions

  $ 44,884     $ 61       0.14

%

  $ 39,451     $ 227       0.58

%

Federal funds sold

    1,058       -       -       2,307       15       0.65  

Nontaxable Securities

    260,043       6,069       2.33       137,779       3,828       2.78  

Taxable Securities

    200,202       2,952       1.47       180,435       2,684       1.49  

Total investments

    506,187       9,082       1.79       359,972       6,754       1.88  

Loans:*

                                               

Real estate mortgage loans

    777,113       32,621       4.20       768,071       35,875       4.67  

Commercial business loans

    159,487       7,378       4.63       173,480       8,162       4.70  

Consumer loans

    31,585       1,574       4.98       19,636       830       4.23  

Total loans

    968,185       41,573       4.29       961,187       44,867       4.67  

Total interest-earning assets

    1,474,372       50,655       3.44       1,321,159       51,621       3.91  

Allowance for loan losses

    (13,353 )                     (9,881 )                

Other assets

    112,962                       115,898                  

Total assets

  $ 1,573,981                     $ 1,427,176                  
                                                 

Liabilities:

                                               
                                                 

NOW accounts

  $ 297,012     $ 243.00       0.08

%

  $ 240,028     $ 301.00       0.13

%

Money market demand accounts

    253,468       334       0.13       233,904       846       0.36  

Savings accounts

    277,839       174       0.06       230,579       167       0.07  

Certificates of deposit

    271,882       1,251       0.46       298,403       4,007       1.34  

Total interest-bearing deposits

    1,100,201       2,002       0.18       1,239,314       5,321       0.43  

Repurchase Agreements

    17,789       47       0.26       14,956       87       0.58  

Borrowed funds

    2,448       31       1.27       12,298       332       2.70  

Total interest-bearing liabilities

    1,120,438       2,080       0.19       1,266,568       5,740       0.45  
                                                 

Demand deposit accounts

    280,900                       236,400                  

Other liabilities

    16,995                       16,333                  

Total liabilities

    1,418,333                       1,519,301                  
                                                 

Stockholders' equity

    155,648                       144,275                  

Total liabilities and stockholders' equity

  $ 1,573,981                     $ 1,427,176                  

Net interest income

          $ 48,575                     $ 45,881          

Net interest spread

                    3.25

%

                    3.46

%

Net interest margin**

                    3.29

%

                    3.47

%

Ratio of interest-earning assets to interest-bearing liabilities

      1.32 x                     1.04 x

 

* Non-accruing loans have been included in the average balances. ** Net interest income divided by average interest-earning assets.

 

Page 20 of 108

 

The table below sets forth certain information regarding changes in interest income and interest expense of the Bancorp for the periods indicated.  For each category of interest-earning asset and interest-bearing liability, information is provided on changes attributable to: (1) changes in volume (change in volume multiplied by old rate) and (2) changes in rate  (change in rate multiplied by old volume).  Changes attributable to both rate and volume which cannot be segregated have been allocated proportionately to the change due to volume and the change due to rate.  The amounts are stated in thousands (000's).

 

   

Year Ended December 31,

 
   

2021

   

vs.

   

2020

 
   

Increase / (Decrease)

 
   

Due To

 
   

Volume

   

Rate

   

Total

 
                         

Interest income:

                       

Loans receivable

  $ 324     $ (3,618 )   $ (3,294 )

Nontaxable securities

    2,936       (695 )     2,241  

Taxable securities

    292       (24 )     268  

Interest bearing balances in other financial institutions

    28       (194 )     (166 )

Federal funds sold

    (15 )     0       (15 )

Total interest-earning assets

    3,565       (4,531 )     (966 )
                         

Interest Expense:

                       

NOW accounts

    61       (119 )     (58 )

Money market accounts

    66       (578 )     (512 )

Savings accounts

    31       (24 )     7  

Certificates of deposit

    (328 )     (2,428 )     (2,756 )

Repurchase agreements

    14       (54 )     (40 )

Borrowed funds

    (181 )     (120 )     (301 )

Total interest-bearing

                       

liabilities

    (337 )     (3,323 )     (3,660 )
                         

Net change in net interest income/(expense)

  $ 3,902     $ (1,208 )   $ 2,694  

 

Page 21 of 108

 

Subsidiary Activities

 

NWIN Risk Management, Inc. is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Bancorp. The subsidiary provides captive insurance for the subsidiaries of the Bancorp.

 

Peoples Service Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Bank was incorporated under the laws of the State of Indiana. The subsidiary currently provides insurance and annuity investments to the Bank’s wealth management customers.

 

NWIN, LLC is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Bank. NWIN, LLC was incorporated under the laws of the State of Nevada as an investment subsidiary. The investment subsidiary currently holds Bank security investments, which are managed by a professional portfolio manager. In addition, the investment subsidiary is the parent of a real estate investment trust, NWIN Funding, Inc., that invests in real estate loans originated by the Bank.

 

NWIN Funding, Inc. is a subsidiary of NWIN, LLC, and was formed as an Indiana Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT). The formation of NWIN Funding, Inc. provides the Bancorp with a vehicle that may be used to raise capital utilizing portfolio mortgages as collateral, without diluting stock ownership. In addition, NWIN Funding, Inc. will receive favorable state tax treatment for income generated by its operations.

 

Columbia Development Company, LLC is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Bank and was incorporated under the laws of the State of Indiana. The subsidiary holds real estate properties that the Bank has acquired through the foreclosure process.

 

The consolidated financial statements include the Bancorp, its wholly owned subsidiaries, the Bank, NWIN Risk Management, Inc, and the Bank’s wholly owned subsidiaries, Peoples Service Corporation, NWIN, LLC and Columbia Development Company, LLC. The Bancorp’s business activities include being a holding company for the Bank as well as a holding company for NWIN Risk Management, Inc. The Bancorp’s earnings are dependent upon the earnings of the Bank. All significant inter-company accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

 

Competition

 

The Bancorp’s primary market area for deposits, loans and financial services encompasses Lake and Porter Counties, in Northwest Indiana, and Cook County in northeast Illinois. All of the Bancorp’s banking centers and offices are located in its primary market area. Approximately ninety-three percent of the Bancorp’s business activities are within this area.

 

The Bancorp faces strong competition in its primary market area for the attraction and retention of deposits and in the origination of loans. The Bancorp’s most direct competition for deposits has historically come from commercial banks, savings associations, and credit unions located in its primary market area. Particularly in times of high interest rates, the Bancorp has had significant competition from mutual funds and other firms offering financial services. The Bancorp’s competition for loans comes principally from savings associations, commercial banks, mortgage banking companies, credit unions, insurance companies, and other institutional lenders.

 

The Bancorp competes for loans principally through the interest rates and loan fees it charges and the efficiency and quality of the services it provides borrowers and other third-party sources. It competes for deposits by offering depositors a wide variety of savings accounts, checking accounts, competitive interest rates, convenient banking center locations, drive-up facilities, automatic teller machines, tax deferred retirement programs, digital banking, and other miscellaneous services.

 

The activities of the Bancorp and the Bank in the geographic market served involve competition with other banks as well as with other financial institutions and enterprises, many of which have substantially greater resources than those available to the Bancorp. In addition, non-bank financial services companies with which the Bancorp and Bank compete, while subject to regulation by the CFPB, are generally not subject to the same type of extensive regulation by the federal and state banking agencies applicable to the Bancorp and the Bank.

 

Page 22 of 108

 

Employees and Human Capital Resources

 

We believe that the foundation of our success in the banking business lies with the quality of our employees, the development of our employees’ skills and career goals, and our ability to provide a comprehensive rewarding experience and work environment for our employees. We encourage and support the development of our employees and, wherever possible, strive to fill positions from within the organization. As of December 31, 2021, the Bank had 254 full-time and 26 part-time employees. The employees are not represented by a collective bargaining agreement. Management believes its employee relations are good. The Bancorp has seven executive officers and has no other employees. The Bancorp’s officers also are full-time employees of the Bank, and are compensated by the Bank.

 

Regulation and Supervision

 

Bank Holding Company Regulation. The Bancorp is registered as a bank holding company for the Bank and has elected to be a financial holding company under the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999. As a bank holding company and financial holding company, the Bancorp is subject to the regulation and supervision of the FRB under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (the "BHCA"). Bank holding companies are required to file periodic reports with and are subject to periodic examination by the FRB.

 

Under the BHCA, without the prior approval of the FRB, the Bancorp may not acquire direct or indirect control of more than 5% of the voting stock or substantially all of the assets of any company, including a bank, and may not merge or consolidate with another bank holding company. In addition, the Bancorp is generally prohibited by the BHCA from engaging in any nonbanking business unless such business is determined by the FRB to be so closely related to banking as to be a proper incident thereto. Under the BHCA, the FRB has the authority to require a bank holding company to terminate any activity or relinquish control of a nonbank subsidiary (other than a nonbank subsidiary of a bank) upon the FRB's determination that such activity or control constitutes a serious risk to the financial soundness and stability of any bank subsidiary of the bank holding company.

 

The Change in Bank Control Act (“CBCA”) prohibits a person or group of persons from acquiring “control” of a bank holding company unless the FRB has been notified and has not objected to the transaction. Under a rebuttable presumption established by the FRB, the acquisition of 10% or more of a class of voting stock of a bank holding company with a class of securities registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act, such as the Bancorp, would, under the circumstances set forth in the presumption, constitute acquisition of control of the Bancorp. In addition, the CBCA prohibits any entity from acquiring 25% (the BHCA has a lower limit for acquirers that are existing bank holding companies) or more of a bank holding company’s or bank’s voting securities, or otherwise obtaining control or a controlling influence over a bank holding company or bank without the approval of the FRB. On April 1, 2020, the FRB’s final rule clarifying the standards for determining whether one company has control over another became effective. The final rule establishes four categories of tiered presumptions of noncontrol that are based on the percentage of voting shares held by the investor (less than 5%, 5-9.9%, 10-14.9% and 15-24.9%) and the presence of other indicia of control. As the percentage of ownership increases, fewer indicia of control are permitted without falling outside of the presumption of noncontrol. These indicia of control include nonvoting equity ownership, director representation, management interlocks, business relationship and restrictive contractual covenants. Under the final rule, investors can hold up to 24.9% of the voting securities and up to 33% of the total equity of a company without necessarily having a controlling influence.

 

Under the Dodd Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (the “Dodd-Frank Act”), a bank holding company is expected to serve as a source of financial and managerial strength to its subsidiary bank(s). Pursuant to this requirement, a bank holding company should stand ready to use its resources to provide adequate capital funds to its subsidiary bank(s) during periods of financial stress or adversity. This support may be required by the FRB at times when the Bancorp may not have the resources to provide it or, for other reasons, would not be inclined to provide it. Additionally, under the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 ("FDICIA"), a bank holding company is required to provide limited guarantee of the compliance by any insured depository institution subsidiary that may become "undercapitalized" (as defined in the statute) with the terms of any capital restoration plan filed by such subsidiary with its appropriate federal banking agency.

 

Page 23 of 108

 

State Bank Regulation. As an Indiana commercial bank, the Bank is subject to federal regulation and supervision by the FDIC and to state regulation and supervision by the DFI. The Bank's deposit accounts are insured by the DIF, which is administered by the FDIC. The Bank is not a member of the Federal Reserve System.

 

Both federal and Indiana law extensively regulate various aspects of the banking business such as reserve requirements, truth-in-lending and truth-in-savings disclosures, equal credit opportunity, fair credit reporting, trading in securities and other aspects of banking operations. Current federal law also requires banks, among other things, to make deposited funds available within specified time periods.

 

Under FDICIA, insured state chartered banks are prohibited from engaging as principal in activities that are not permitted for national banks, unless: (i) the FDIC determines that the activity would pose no significant risk to the appropriate deposit insurance fund, and (ii) the bank is, and continues to be, in compliance with all applicable capital standards.

 

Branches and Acquisitions. Branching by the Bank requires the approval of the Federal Reserve and the DFI. Under current law, Indiana chartered banks may establish branches throughout the state and in other states, subject to certain limitations. Congress authorized interstate branching, with certain limitations, beginning in 1997. Indiana law authorizes an Indiana bank to establish one or more branches in states other than Indiana through interstate merger transactions and to establish one or more interstate branches through de novo branching or the acquisition of a branch. The Dodd-Frank Act permits the establishment of de novo branches in states where such branches could be opened by a state bank chartered by that state. The consent of the state is no longer required.

 

Transactions with Affiliates. Under Indiana law, the Bank is subject to Sections 22(h), 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act, which restrict financial transactions between banks and affiliated companies, such as the Bancorp. The statute limits credit transactions between a bank and its executive officers and its affiliates, prescribes terms and conditions for bank affiliate transactions deemed to be consistent with safe and sound banking practices, and restricts the types of collateral security permitted in connection with a bank's extension of credit to an affiliate.

 

Capital Requirements. Federal regulations require FDIC insured depository institutions to meet several minimum capital standards: (i) a common equity Tier 1 capital to risk-based assets ratio of 4.5%; (ii) a Tier 1 capital to risk-based assets ratio of 6.0%; (iii) a total capital to risk-based assets ratio of 8%; and (iv) a 4% Tier 1 capital to total assets leverage ratio.

 

Common equity Tier 1 capital is generally defined as common shareholders’ equity and retained earnings. Tier 1 capital is generally defined as common equity Tier 1 and Additional Tier 1 capital. Additional Tier 1 capital generally includes certain noncumulative perpetual preferred stock and related surplus and minority interests in equity accounts of consolidated subsidiaries. Total capital includes Tier 1 capital (common equity Tier 1 capital plus Additional Tier 1 capital) and Tier 2 capital. Tier 2 capital is comprised of capital instruments and related surplus meeting specified requirements, and may include cumulative preferred stock and long-term perpetual preferred stock, mandatory convertible securities, intermediate preferred stock, and subordinated debt. Also included in Tier 2 capital is the allowance for loan and lease losses limited to a maximum of 1.25% of risk-weighted assets and, for institutions that have exercised an opt-out election regarding the treatment of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (“AOCI”), up to 45% of net unrealized gains on available-for-sale equity securities with readily determinable fair market values. Institutions that have not exercised the AOCI opt-out have AOCI incorporated into common equity Tier 1 capital (including unrealized gains and losses on available-for-sale-securities). Calculation of all types of regulatory capital is subject to deductions and adjustments specified in the regulations.

 

In determining the amount of risk-weighted assets for purposes of calculating risk-based capital ratios, assets, including certain off-balance sheet assets (e.g., recourse obligations, direct credit substitutes, and residual interests) are multiplied by a risk weight factor assigned by the regulations based on the risks believed inherent in the type of asset. Higher levels of capital are required for asset categories believed to present greater risk. For example, a risk weight of 0% is assigned to cash and U.S. government securities, a risk weight of 50% is generally assigned to prudently underwritten first lien one to four-family residential mortgages, a risk weight of 100% is assigned to commercial and consumer loans, a risk weight of 150% is assigned to certain past due loans and a risk weight of between 0% to 600% is assigned to permissible equity interests, depending on certain specified factors.

 

Page 24 of 108

 

In addition to establishing the minimum regulatory capital requirements, the regulations limit capital distributions by the institution and certain discretionary bonus payments to management if an institution does not hold a “capital conservation buffer” consisting of 2.5% of common equity Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets above the amount necessary to meet its minimum risk-based capital requirements. The capital conservation buffer requirement was phased in beginning January 1, 2016 at 0.625% of risk-weighted assets and increased each year until fully implemented at 2.5% on January 1, 2019.

 

The FRB and FDIC have authority to establish individual minimum capital requirements in appropriate cases upon a determination that an institution’s capital level is or may become inadequate in light of the particular risks or circumstances. As of December 31, 2021, the Bank met all applicable capital adequacy requirements.

 

Bank holding companies are generally subject to consolidated capital requirements established by the FRB. The Dodd-Frank Act required the FRB to set minimum capital levels for bank holding companies that are as stringent as those required for insured depository subsidiaries. However, under the FRB’s “Small Bank Holding Company” exemption from consolidated bank holding company capital requirements, bank holding companies and savings and loan holding companies with less than $3 billion in consolidated assets, such as the Bancorp, are exempt from consolidated regulatory capital requirements, unless the FRB determines otherwise in particular cases.

 

Federal law establishes a system of prompt corrective action to resolve the problems of undercapitalized institutions. The law requires that certain supervisory actions be taken against undercapitalized institutions, the severity of which depends on the degree of undercapitalization. The FDIC has adopted regulations to implement the prompt corrective action legislation as to insured state banks. An institution is deemed to be “well capitalized” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of 10.0% or greater, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 8.0% or greater, a leverage ratio of 5.0% or greater, and a common equity Tier 1 ratio of 6.5% or greater. An institution is “adequately capitalized” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of 8.0% or greater, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 6.0% or greater, a leverage ratio of 4.0% or greater, and a common equity Tier 1 ratio of 4.5% or greater. An institution is “undercapitalized” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of less than 8.0%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 6.0%, a leverage ratio of less than 4.0%, or a common equity Tier 1 ratio of less than 4.5%. An institution is deemed to be “significantly undercapitalized” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of less than 6.0%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 4.0%, a leverage ratio of less than 3.0%, or a common equity Tier 1 ratio of less than 3.0%. An institution is considered to be “critically undercapitalized” if it has a ratio of tangible equity (as defined in the regulations) to total assets that is equal to or less than 2.0%.

 

Subject to a narrow exception, a receiver or conservator is required to be appointed for an institution that is “critically undercapitalized” within specified time frames. The regulations also provide that a capital restoration plan must be filed with the FDIC within 45 days of the date an institution is deemed to have received notice that it is “undercapitalized,” “significantly undercapitalized,” or “critically undercapitalized.” Compliance with the plan must be guaranteed by any parent holding company up to the lesser of 5% of the institution’s total assets when it was deemed to be undercapitalized or the amount necessary to achieve compliance with applicable capital requirements. In addition, numerous mandatory supervisory actions become immediately applicable to an undercapitalized institution including, but not limited to, increased monitoring by regulators and restrictions on growth, capital distributions and expansion. The FDIC could also take any one of a number of discretionary supervisory actions, including the issuance of a capital directive and the replacement of senior executive officers and directors. Significantly and critically undercapitalized institutions are subject to additional mandatory and discretionary measures.

 

Page 25 of 108

 

Section 201 of the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief and Consumer Protection Act of 2018 (the “Economic Growth Act”) directed federal banking agencies to draft regulations establishing a new optional Community Bank Leverage Ratio (“CBLR”). The Economic Growth Act provides that the CBLR will apply to a “qualifying community bank” which the Economic Growth Act defines as a bank with consolidated assets of less than $10 billion and satisfying additional criteria designed to disqualify institutions with a higher risk profile. Under the Economic Growth Act, qualifying community banks that meet or exceed the CBLR and elect to follow the alternative regulatory capital structure will be deemed to have satisfied all generally applicable leverage capital and risk-based capital requirements and will be considered “well capitalized” under the FDIC prompt corrective action provisions. The Economic Growth Act directed the FRB, the FDIC, and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (“OCC”) to jointly determine a community bank leverage ratio percentage, not less than 8% nor more than 10%, that must be maintained to be deemed to have satisfied all generally applicable leverage capital and risk-based capital requirements and be considered well capitalized. The Economic Growth Act also directed agencies to establish procedures for dealing with a qualifying bank that subsequently falls below the new ratio.

 

The final regulation implementing Section 201 became effective on January 1, 2020 (the “Final Rule”). Under the Final Rule, to be eligible to use the CBLR framework, a banking organization must not be an advanced approaches organization and must have (i) a leverage ratio of greater than 9%; (ii) total consolidated assets of less than $10 billion; (iii) total off-balance sheet exposures of 25% or less of total consolidated assets; and (iv) total trading assets plus trading liabilities of 5% or less of total consolidated assets. A qualifying institution may opt in and out of the CBLR framework on its quarterly call report. An institution that ceases to meet any qualifying criteria is provided with a two-quarter grace period to either comply with the CBLR requirements or comply with the general capital regulations, including the risk-based capital requirements.

 

Section 4012 of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act of 2020 (the “CARES Act”) required that the CBLR be temporarily lowered to 8%. The federal regulators issued a rule implementing the lower ratio effective April 23, 2020. The rule also established a two-quarter grace period for a qualifying institution whose leverage ratio falls below the 8% CBLR requirement so long as the bank maintains a leverage ratio of 7% or greater. Another rule was issued to transition back to the 9% CBLR by increasing the ratio to 8.5% for calendar year 2021 and 9% thereafter. At this time, the Bank has not elected to opt in to the CBLR framework, but the framework is currently available to the Bank if it elects to opt in at some point in the future.

 

The following table shows that, at December 31, 2021, and December 31, 2020, the Bank’s capital exceeded all applicable regulatory capital requirements. The dollar amounts are in millions.

 

 

(Dollars in millions)

                                 

Minimum Required To Be

 
                   

Minimum Required For

   

Well Capitalized Under Prompt

 
   

Actual

   

Capital Adequacy Purposes

   

Corrective Action Regulations

 

At December 31, 2021

 

Amount

   

Ratio

   

Amount

   

Ratio

   

Amount

   

Ratio

 

Common equity tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets

  $ 133.7       12.6 %   $ 47.8       4.5 %   $ 69.0       6.5 %

Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets

  $ 133.7       12.6 %   $ 63.7       6.0 %   $ 85.0       8.0 %

Total capital to risk-weighted assets

  $ 147.0       13.9 %   $ 85.0       8.0 %   $ 106.2       10.0 %

Tier 1 capital to adjusted average assets

  $ 133.7       8.4 %   $ 64.1       4.0 %   $ 80.1       5.0 %

 

(Dollars in millions)

                                 

Minimum Required To Be

 
                   

Minimum Required For

   

Well Capitalized Under Prompt

 
   

Actual

   

Capital Adequacy Purposes

   

Corrective Action Regulations

 

At December 31, 2020

 

Amount

   

Ratio

   

Amount

   

Ratio

   

Amount

   

Ratio

 

Common equity tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets

  $ 122.0       12.6 %   $ 43.8       4.5 %   $ 63.2       6.5 %

Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets

  $ 122.0       12.6 %   $ 58.4       6.0 %   $ 77.8       8.0 %

Total capital to risk-weighted assets

  $ 134.2       13.8 %   $ 77.8       8.0 %   $ 97.3       10.0 %

Tier 1 capital to adjusted average assets

  $ 122.0       8.3 %   $ 59.1       4.0 %   $ 73.9       5.0 %

 

In December 2017, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision published the last version of the Basel III accord, generally referred to as “Basel IV.” The Basel Committee stated that a key objective of the revisions incorporated into the framework is to reduce excessive variability of risk-weighted assets (“RWA”), which will be accomplished by enhancing the robustness and risk sensitivity of the standardized approaches for credit risk and operational risk, which will facilitate the comparability of banks’ capital ratios; constraining the use of internally modeled approaches; and complementing the risk-weighted capital ratio with a finalized leverage ratio and a revised and robust capital floor. The leadership of the FRB, Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (“OCC”), and FDIC, who are tasked with implementing Basel IV, supported the revisions. Under the current U.S. capital rules, operational risk capital requirements and a capital floor apply only to advanced approaches institutions, and not to the Bancorp. The impact of Basel IV on the Bancorp will depend on the manner in which it is implemented by the federal banking regulators.

 

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Banking regulators may change these capital requirements from time to time, depending on the economic outlook generally and the outlook for the banking industry. The Bancorp is unable to predict whether and when any such further capital requirements would be imposed and, if so, to what levels and on what schedule.

 

New Accounting Standards With Regulatory Effect. In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued an accounting standard update, “Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326), Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments,” which replaces the current “incurred loss” model for recognizing credit losses with an “expected loss” model referred to as the Current Expected Credit Loss (“CECL”) model. Under the CECL model, the Bancorp will be required to present certain financial assets carried at amortized cost, such as loans held for investment and held-to-maturity debt securities, at the net amount expected to be collected. The measurement of expected credit losses is to be based on information about past events, including historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts that affect the collectability of the reported amount. On December 21, 2018, the federal banking agencies approved a final rule modifying their regulatory capital rules and providing an option to phase in over a period of three years the day-one regulatory capital effects of the CECL model. The final rule also revises the agencies’ other rules to reflect the update to the accounting standards. The final rule took effect April 1, 2019. The new CECL standard will become effective for the Bancorp for fiscal year ending December 31, 2023 and for interim periods within the fiscal year. The Bancorp’s management is currently evaluating the impact the CECL model will have on the Bancorp’s accounting. Additional detail around managements current efforts can be found in Note 1 to the financial statements, under ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses: Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments.

 

Dividend Limitations. The Bancorp is a legal entity separate and distinct from the Bank. The primary source of the Bancorp’s cash flow, including cash flow to pay dividends on the Bancorp’s Common Stock, is the payment of dividends to the Bancorp by the Bank. Under Indiana law, the Bank may pay dividends of so much of its undivided profits (generally, earnings less losses, bad debts, taxes and other operating expenses) as is considered expedient by the Bank’s Board of Directors. However, the Bank must obtain the approval of the DFI for the payment of a dividend if the total of all dividends declared by the Bank during the current year, including the proposed dividend, would exceed the sum of retained net income for the year to date plus its retained net income for the previous two years. For this purpose, “retained net income” means net income as calculated for call report purposes, less all dividends declared for the applicable period. An exemption from DFI approval would require that the Bank have been assigned a composite uniform financial institutions rating of 1 or 2 as a result of the most recent federal or state examination; the proposed dividend would not result in a Tier 1 leverage ratio below 7.5%; and that the Bank not be subject to any corrective action, supervisory order, supervisory agreement, or board approved operating agreement.

 

The FDIC has the authority to prohibit the Bank from paying dividends if, in its opinion, the payment of dividends would constitute an unsafe or unsound practice in light of the financial condition of the Bank. In addition, under FRB supervisory policy, a bank holding company generally should not maintain its existing rate of cash dividends on common shares unless (i) the organization’s net income available to common shareholders over the past year has been sufficient to fully fund the dividends and (ii) the prospective rate of earnings retention appears consistent with the organization’s capital needs, assets, quality, and overall financial condition. The FRB expects bank holding companies to consult with it in advance of declaring dividends that could raise safety and soundness concerns (i.e., such as when the dividend is not supported by earnings or involves a material increase in the dividend rate) and in advance of repurchasing shares of common or preferred stock.

 

Federal Deposit Insurance. Deposits in the Bank are insured by the Deposit Insurance Fund of the FDIC up to a maximum amount, which is generally $250,000 per depositor, subject to aggregation rules. There is no unlimited insurance coverage for noninterest bearing transaction accounts. Rather, deposits held in noninterest bearing transaction accounts are aggregated with interest bearing deposits the owner may hold in the same ownership category, and the combined insured up to at least $250,000. The Bank is subject to deposit insurance assessments by the FDIC pursuant to its regulations establishing a risk-related deposit insurance assessment system, based on the institution’s capital levels and risk profile. Under the FDIC’s risk-based assessment system, insured institutions are assigned to one of four risk-weighted categories based on supervisory evaluations, regulatory capital levels, and certain other factors with less risky institutions paying lower assessments. An institution’s initial assessment rate depends upon the category to which it is assigned. There are also adjustments to a bank’s initial assessment rates based on levels of long-term unsecured debt, secured liabilities in excess of 25% of domestic deposits and, for certain institutions, brokered deposit levels. Pursuant to FDIC rules adopted under the Dodd-Frank Act (described below), initial assessments ranged from 5 to 35 basis points of the institution’s total assets minus its tangible equity. The Bank paid net deposit insurance assessments of $861 thousand during the year ended December 31, 2021. For 2021, the deposit insurance assessment rate before applying one-time assessment credits was approximately 0.060% of insured deposits. No institution may pay a dividend if it is in default of the federal deposit insurance assessment.

 

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Under the Dodd-Frank Act, the FDIC is authorized to set the reserve ratio for the Deposit Insurance Fund at no less than 1.35% of estimated insured deposits, which is increased from the previous ratio of 1.15%. The FDIC must offset the effect of the increase in the minimum designated reserve ratio from 1.15% to 1.35% on insured depository institutions of less than $10 billion, and may declare dividends to depository institutions when the reserve ratio at the end of a calendar quarter is at least 1.5%, although the FDIC has the authority to suspend or limit such permitted dividend declarations. The FDIC has set the designated reserve ratio for the deposit insurance fund at 2% of estimated insured deposits, which the FDIC has established as a long-term goal. On September 30, 2018, the DIF reserve ratio reached 1.36 percent, exceeding the statutorily required minimum reserve ratio of 1.35 percent. As of September 30, 2020, the FDIC had announced that the ratio had declined to 1.30% due largely to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. The FDIC adopted a plan to restore the fund to the 1.35% ratio within eight years but did not change its assessment schedule.

 

Under the Dodd-Frank Act, the assessment base for deposit insurance premiums is calculated as average consolidated total assets minus average tangible equity. Tangible equity for this purpose means Tier 1 capital. The rate schedules set forth in the rule governing the assessment base are scaled to the increase in the assessment base, including schedules that go into effect as the reserve ratio reaches 1.15%, 2%, and 2.5%.

 

The schedules reduce the initial base assessment rate in each of the four risk-based pricing categories.

 

For small Risk category I banks, the rates range from 5-9 basis points.

 

The rates for small institutions in Risk Categories II, III and IV are 14, 23 and 35 basis points, respectively.

 

For large institutions and large, highly complex institutions, the rate schedule ranges from 5 to 35 basis points.

 

There are also adjustments made to the initial assessment rates based on long-term unsecured debt, depository institution debt, and brokered deposits. The FDIC also provides for an assessment system for large depository institutions with over $10 billion in assets.

 

The FDIC has the authority to increase insurance assessments. A significant increase in insurance premiums would likely have an adverse effect on the operating expenses and results of operations of the Bank. Management cannot predict what insurance assessment rates will be in the future.

 

The FDIC may terminate the deposit insurance of any insured depository institution if the FDIC determines, after a hearing, that the institution has engaged or is engaging in unsafe or unsound practices, is in an unsafe and unsound condition to continue operations or has violated any applicable law, regulation, order or any condition imposed in writing by, or written agreement with, the FDIC. The FDIC may also suspend deposit insurance temporarily during the hearing process for a permanent termination of insurance if the institution has no tangible capital.

 

Federal Home Loan Bank System. The Bank is a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Indianapolis, which is one of eleven regional Federal Home Loan Banks. Each Federal Home Loan Bank serves as a reserve or central bank for its members within its assigned region. It is funded primarily from funds deposited by member institutions and proceeds from the sale of consolidated obligations of the Federal Home Loan Bank system. It makes loans to members (i.e., advances) in accordance with policies and procedures established by the board of trustees of the Federal Home Loan Bank. As a member, the Bank is required to purchase and maintain stock in the Federal Home Loan Bank of Indianapolis in an amount equal to the greater of 1% of its aggregate unpaid residential mortgage loans, home purchase contracts or similar obligations at the beginning of each year or 5% of our outstanding advances from the Federal Home Loan Bank. At December 31, 2021, the Bank was in compliance with this requirement.

 

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At December 31, 2021, the Bancorp owned $3.2 million of stock of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Indianapolis (“FHLBI”). The FHLBI stock entitles the Bancorp to dividends from the FHLBI. The Bancorp recognized dividend income of approximately $70 thousand in 2021. At December 31, 2021, the Bancorp’s excess borrowing capacity based on collateral from the FHLBI was $192.8 million. Generally, the loan terms from the FHLBI are better than the terms the Bancorp can receive from other sources making it cheaper to borrow money from the FHLBI.

 

Federal Reserve System. Under regulations of the FRB, the Bank is required to maintain reserves against its transaction accounts (primarily checking accounts) and non-personal money market deposit accounts. The effect of these reserve requirements is to increase the Bank’s cost of funds. The Bank is in compliance with its reserve requirements.

 

Community Reinvestment Act. Under the Community Reinvestment Act (“CRA”), the Bank has a continuing and affirmative obligation consistent with its safe and sound operation to help meet the credit needs of its entire community, including low and moderate income neighborhoods. The CRA does not establish specific lending requirements or programs for financial institutions nor does it limit an institution’s discretion to develop the types of products and services that it believes are best suited to its particular community, consistent with the CRA. The CRA requires the FDIC in connection with its examination of the Bank, to assess its record of meeting the credit needs of its community and to take that record into account in its evaluation of certain applications by the Bank. For example, the regulations specify that a bank’s CRA performance will be considered in its expansion (e.g., branching) proposals and may be the basis for approving, denying or conditioning the approval of an application. As of the date of its most recent regulatory examination, the Bank was rated “satisfactory” with respect to its CRA compliance.

 

Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act. Under the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act ("Gramm-Leach"), bank holding companies are permitted to offer their customers virtually any type of financial service, including banking, securities underwriting, insurance (both agency and underwriting) and merchant banking. In order to engage in these new financial activities, a bank holding company must qualify and register with the FRB as a "financial holding company" by demonstrating that each of its bank subsidiaries is well capitalized, well managed and has at least a satisfactory rating under the CRA. As previously discussed, the Bancorp has elected to become a financial holding company under Gramm-Leach.

 

Gramm-Leach established a system of functional regulation, under which the federal banking agencies regulate the banking activities of financial holding companies, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission regulates their securities activities and state insurance regulators regulate their insurance activities.

 

Under Gramm-Leach, federal banking regulators adopted rules limiting the ability of banks and other financial institutions to disclose nonpublic information about consumers to nonaffiliated third parties. The rules require disclosure of privacy policies to consumers and, in some circumstances, allow consumers to prevent disclosure of certain personal information to nonaffiliated third parties. The privacy provisions of Gramm-Leach affect how consumer information is transmitted through diversified financial services companies and conveyed to outside vendors.

 

The Bancorp does not disclose any nonpublic information about any current or former customers to anyone except as permitted by law and subject to contractual confidentiality provisions which restrict the release and use of such information.

 

Cybersecurity Guidelines. The federal banking agencies have adopted guidelines for establishing information security standards and cybersecurity programs for implementing safeguards under the supervision of the board of directors. These guidelines, along with related regulatory materials, increasingly focus on risk management and processes related to information technology and the use of third parties in the provision of financial services. In October 2016, the federal banking agencies issued an advance notice of proposed rulemaking on enhanced cybersecurity risk-management and resilience standards that would apply to large and interconnected banking organizations and to services provided by third parties to these firms. These enhanced standards would apply only to depository institutions and depository institution holding companies with total consolidated assets of $50 billion or more, which would not currently include the Bancorp. However, similar standards and/or regulations may be adopted or implemented by federal and state banking agencies in the future which may be applicable to community banking organizations such as the Bancorp.

 

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Recent cyberattacks against banks and other financial institutions that resulted in unauthorized access to confidential customer information have prompted the federal banking regulators to issue extensive guidance on cybersecurity. Among other things, financial institutions are expected to design multiple layers of security controls to establish lines of defense and ensure that their risk management processes address the risks posed by compromised customer credentials, including security measures to authenticate customers accessing internet-based services. A financial institution also should have a robust business continuity program to recover from a cyberattack and procedures for monitoring the security of third-party service providers that may have access to nonpublic data at the institution. During 2021, the Bancorp did not discover any material cybersecurity incidents.

 

Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. The Dodd-Frank Act established the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”) within the Federal Reserve, which is granted broad rulemaking, supervisory and enforcement powers under various federal consumer financial protection laws, including the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, Truth in Lending Act, Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, Fair Credit Reporting Act, Fair Debt Collection Act, the Consumer Financial Privacy provisions of Gramm-Leach and certain other statutes. Many of the consumer financial protection functions formerly assigned to the federal banking and other designated agencies are now performed by the CFPB. The CFPB has a large budget and staff, and has the authority to implement regulations under federal consumer protection laws and enforce those laws against, and examine, financial institutions. The CFPB has examination and primary enforcement authority with respect to depository institutions with $10 billion or more in assets. Smaller institutions are subject to rules promulgated by the CFPB but continue to be examined and supervised by the federal banking regulators for consumer compliance purposes. The CFPB has the authority to prevent unfair, deceptive or abusive practice in connection with the offering of consumer financial products. Additionally, this bureau is authorized to collect fines and provide consumer restitution in the event of violations, engage in consumer financial education, track consumer complaints, request data, and promote the availability of financial services to underserved consumers and communities.

 

Moreover, the Dodd-Frank Act authorized the CFPB to establish certain minimum standards for the origination of residential mortgages including a determination of the borrower’s ability to repay. In addition, the CFPB has published several final regulations impacting the mortgage industry, including rules related to ability-to-pay, mortgage servicing, and mortgage loan originator compensation. The ability-to-repay rule makes lenders liable if they fail to assess ability to repay under a prescribed test, but also creates a safe harbor for so-called “qualified mortgages.” Failure to comply with the ability-to-repay rule may result in possible CFPB enforcement action and special statutory damages plus actual, class action, and attorneys’ fees damages, all of which a borrower may claim in defense of a foreclosure action at any time. The Dodd-Frank Act also permits states to adopt consumer protection laws and standards that are more stringent than those adopted at the federal level and, in certain circumstances, permits state attorneys general to enforce compliance with both the state and federal laws and regulations. Federal preemption of state consumer protection law requirements, traditionally an attribute of the federal savings association charter, also was modified by the Dodd-Frank Act and requires a case-by-case determination of preemption by the OCC and eliminates preemption for subsidiaries of a bank. Depending on the implementation of this revised federal preemption standard, the operations of the Bank could become subject to additional compliance burdens in the states in which it operates.

 

Mortgage Reform and Anti-Predatory Lending. Title XIV of the Dodd-Frank Act, the Mortgage Reform and Anti-Predatory Lending Act, includes a series of amendments to the Truth In Lending Act with respect to mortgage loan origination standards affecting, among other things, originator compensation, minimum repayment standards and pre-payments. With respect to mortgage loan originator compensation, except in limited circumstances, an originator is prohibited from receiving compensation that varies based on the terms of the loan (other than the principal amount). The amendments to the Truth In Lending Act also prohibit a creditor from making a residential mortgage loan unless it determines, based on verified and documented information of the consumer’s financial resources, that the consumer has a reasonable ability to repay the loan. The amendments also prohibit certain pre-payment penalties and require creditors offering a consumer a mortgage loan with a pre-payment penalty to offer the consumer the option of a mortgage loan without such a penalty. In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act expands the definition of a “high-cost mortgage” under the Truth In Lending Act, and imposes new requirements on high-cost mortgages and new disclosure, reporting and notice requirements for residential mortgage loans, as well as new requirements with respect to escrows and appraisal practices.

 

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Interchange Fees for Debit Cards. Under the Dodd-Frank Act, interchange fees for debit card transactions must be reasonable and proportional to the issuer’s incremental cost incurred with respect to the transaction plus certain fraud related costs. Although institutions with total assets of less than $10 billion are exempt from this requirement, competitive pressures have required smaller depository institutions to reduce fees with respect to these debit card transactions.

 

Federal Securities Law. The shares of Common Stock of the Bancorp have been registered with the SEC under the Securities Exchange Act (the “1934 Act”). The Bancorp is subject to the information, proxy solicitation, insider trading restrictions and other requirements of the 1934 Act and the rules of the SEC there under. If the Bancorp has fewer than 1,200 record shareholders, it may deregister its shares under the 1934 Act and cease to be subject to the foregoing requirements.

 

Shares of Common Stock held by persons who are affiliates of the Bancorp may not be resold without registration unless sold in accordance with the resale restrictions of Rule 144 under the Securities Act of 1933. If the Bancorp meets the current public information requirements under Rule 144, each affiliate of the Bancorp who complies with the other conditions of Rule 144 (including those that require the affiliate’s sale to be aggregated with those of certain other persons) would be able to sell in the public market, without registration, a number of shares not to exceed, in any three-month period, the greater of (i) 1% of the outstanding shares of the Bancorp or (ii) the average weekly volume of trading in such shares during the preceding four calendar weeks.

 

Under the Dodd-Frank Act, the Bancorp is required to provide its shareholders an opportunity to vote on the executive compensation payable to its named executive officers and on golden parachute payments in connection with mergers and acquisitions. These votes are non-binding and advisory. At least once every six years, the Bancorp must also permit shareholders to determine on an advisory basis whether such votes should be held every one, two, or three years.

 

Federal Reserve Monetary Policies. The Bancorp’s earnings and growth, as well as the earnings and growth of the banking industry in general, are affected by the monetary and credit policies of monetary authorities, including the FRB. An important function of the FRB is to regulate the national supply of bank credit in order to combat recession and curb inflationary pressures. Among the instruments of monetary policy used by the FRB to implement these objectives are open market operations in U.S. government securities, changes in reserve requirements against member bank deposits, and changes in the Federal Reserve discount rate. These instruments are used in varying combinations to influence overall growth of bank loans, investments, and deposits, and may also affect interest rates charged on loans or paid for deposits. The monetary policies of the FRB have had a significant impact on the operating results of financial institutions in the past and are expected to continue to have effects in the future.

 

In view of continually changing conditions in the national economy and in money markets, as well as the effect of credit policies by monetary and fiscal authorities, including the FRB, it is difficult to predict the impact of possible future changes in interest rates, deposit levels, and loan demand, or their effect on the Bancorp’s business and earnings or on the financial condition of the Bancorp’s various customers.

 

Other Future Legislation and Change in Regulations. Various other legislation, including proposals to expand or contract the powers of banking institutions and bank holding companies, is from time to time introduced. This legislation may change banking statutes and the operating environment of the Bancorp and the Bank in substantial and unpredictable ways. If enacted, such legislation could increase or decrease the cost of doing business, limit or expand permissible activities or affect the competitive balance among banks, savings associations, credit unions and other financial institutions. The Bancorp cannot accurately predict whether any of this potential legislation will ultimately be enacted, and, if enacted, the ultimate effect that it, or implementing regulations, would have upon the financial condition or results of operations of the Bancorp or the Bank.

 

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Federal Taxation

For federal income tax purposes, the Bank reports its income and expenses on the accrual method of accounting. The Bancorp and the Bank file a consolidated federal income tax return for each fiscal year ending December 31.

 

State Taxation

The Bank is subject to Indiana’s Financial Institutions Tax (“FIT”), which is imposed at a flat rate of 6.0% on “adjusted gross income”. This rate is scheduled to decrease over the succeeding years as follows: to 5.5% for 2021, to 5.0% for 2022, and to 4.9% for 2023 and thereafter. Additionally, the Bank is subject to Illinois state tax which is imposed at a flat rate of 9.5%. “Adjusted gross income,” for purposes of FIT, begins with taxable income as defined by Section 63 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”) and, thus, incorporates federal tax law to the extent that it affects the computation of taxable income. Federal taxable income is then adjusted by several Indiana and Illinois modifications. Other applicable state taxes include generally applicable sales and use taxes plus real and personal property taxes.

 

Accounting for Income Taxes

At December 31, 2021, the Bancorp has consolidated total deferred tax assets of $7.2 million and consolidated total deferred tax liabilities of $4.3 million, resulting in a consolidated net deferred tax asset of $2.8 million, net of a $12 thousand valuation allowance. The valuation allowance of $12 thousand was provided for the state tax credit, as management does not believe these amounts will be fully utilized before statutory expiration.

 

Item 1A. Risk Factors

An investment in our common stock involves risks. Before making any decision whether to invest in our common stock, you should carefully consider the risks described below, together with all of the other information included in this report. These risks are not the only ones we will face. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our business operations, financial condition, and results of operations. Our business, financial condition, or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks. The trading price of our common stock could decline due to any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. Also, please read Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.

 

Risks Related to Our Business

 

As a financial institution, the Bancorp is subject to a number of risks relating to its daily business.

 

As a financial institution, we are subject to a number of risks relating to our daily business. Although we undertake a variety of efforts to manage and control those risks, many of the risks are outside of our control. Among the risks we face are the following:

 

 

Credit Risk – the risk that loan customers or other parties will be unable to perform their contractual repayment obligations.

 

 

Market Risk – the risk that changes in market rates and prices will adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

 

 

Liquidity Risk – the risk that the Bancorp or the Bank will have insufficient cash or access to cash to meet its operating needs.

 

 

Operational Risk – the risk of financial and reputational loss resulting from fraud, inadequate or failed internal processes, cyber-security breaches, people and systems, or external events.

 

 

Economic Risk – the risk that the economy in our markets could decline, resulting in increased unemployment, decreased real estate values, and increased loan charge-offs.

 

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Compliance Risk – the risk of additional action by our regulators or additional regulation that could hinder our ability to do business profitably.

 

 

Regulatory Risk – the risk presented by the need to comply with all laws, rules, and regulations from multiple regulatory agencies, including but not limited to the FDIC, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, the IDFI, the FRB, the SEC, and the U.S. Department of Labor.

 

 

Fiduciary Risk – the risk of failing to act in our fiduciary capacity in the best interests of the grantors and beneficiaries of trust accounts and benefit plans. 

 

Above average interest rate risk associated with fixed-rate loans may have an adverse effect on our financial position or results of operations.

 

Peoples Bank’s loan portfolio includes a significant amount of loans with fixed rates of interest. At December 31, 2021, $417.1 million, or 43.4% of the Bank’s total loans receivable had fixed interest rates. The Bank offers adjustable rate mortgage (ARM) loans and fixed-rate loans. Unlike ARM loans, fixed-rate loans carry the risk that, because they do not reprice to market interest rates, their yield may be insufficient to offset increases in the Bank’s cost of funds during a rising interest rate environment. Accordingly, a material and prolonged increase in market interest rates could be expected to have a greater adverse effect on the Bank’s net interest income compared to other institutions that hold a materially larger portion of their assets in ARM loans or fixed-rate loans that are originated for committed sale in the secondary market.

 

Higher loan losses could require the Bancorp to increase its allowance for loan losses through a charge to earnings.

 

When we loan money, we incur the risk that our borrowers will not repay their loans. We reserve for loan losses by establishing an allowance through a charge to earnings. The amount of this allowance is based on our assessment of loan losses inherent in our loan portfolio. The process for determining the amount of the allowance is critical to our financial results and condition. It requires subjective and complex judgments about the future, including forecasts of economic or market conditions that might impair the ability of our borrowers to repay their loans. We might underestimate the loan losses inherent in our loan portfolio and have loan losses in excess of the amount reserved. We might increase the allowance because of changing economic conditions. For example, in a rising interest rate environment, borrowers with adjustable rate loans could see their payments increase. There may be a significant increase in the number of borrowers who are unable or unwilling to repay their loans, resulting in our charging off more loans and increasing our allowance. In addition, when real estate values decline, the potential severity of loss on a real estate-secured loan can increase significantly, especially in the case of loans with high combined loan-to-value ratios. Our allowance for loan losses at any particular date may not be sufficient to cover future loan losses. We may be required to increase our allowance for loan losses, thus reducing earnings.

 

Commercial business lending may expose the Bancorp to increased lending risks.

 

At December 31, 2021, the Bank’s commercial business loan portfolio amounted to $115.8 million, or 12.1% of total loans. Subject to market conditions and other factors, the Bank intends to expand its commercial business lending activities within its primary market areas. Commercial business lending is inherently riskier than residential mortgage lending. Although commercial business loans are often collateralized by equipment, inventory, accounts receivable, or other business assets, the liquidation value of these assets in the event of a borrower default is often an insufficient source of repayment because accounts receivable may be uncollectible and inventories and equipment may be obsolete or of limited use, among other things.

 

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Commercial real estate lending may expose the Bancorp to increased lending risks.

 

At December 31, 2021, the Bank’s commercial real estate loan portfolio amounted to $317.1 million, or 33.0% of total loans. Commercial real estate lending is inherently riskier than residential mortgage lending. Because payments on loans secured by commercial properties often depend upon the successful operation and management of the properties, repayment of such loans may be affected by adverse conditions in the real estate market or the economy, among other things.

 

Our mortgage lending profitability could be significantly reduced if we are not able to resell mortgages at a reasonable gain on sale or experience other problems with the secondary market process or we are unable to retain our mortgage loan sales force due to regulatory changes.

 

Currently, we sell a large portion of the mortgage loans we originate. The profitability of our mortgage banking operations depends in large part upon our ability to aggregate a high volume of loans and to sell them in the secondary market at a gain. Thus, we are dependent upon the existence of an active secondary market and our ability to profitably sell loans into that market.

 

Our ability to sell mortgage loans readily is dependent upon the availability of an active secondary market for single-family mortgage loans, which in turn depends in part upon the continuation of programs currently offered by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and Ginnie Mae (the “Agencies”) and other institutional and non-institutional investors. These entities account for a substantial portion of the secondary market in residential mortgage loans. Some of the largest participants in the secondary market, including the Agencies, are government-sponsored enterprises whose activities are governed by federal law. Any future changes in laws that significantly affect the activity of such government-sponsored enterprises could, in turn, adversely affect our operations.

 

In September 2008, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac were placed into conservatorship by the U.S. government. Although to date, the conservatorship has not had a significant or adverse effect on our operations, and during 2010 and 2012 the Federal Housing Finance Agency indicated that the Treasury Department is committed to funding Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to levels needed in order to sufficiently meet their funding needs, it is currently unclear whether further changes would significantly and adversely affect our operations. In addition, our ability to sell mortgage loans readily is dependent upon our ability to remain eligible for the programs offered by the Agencies and other institutional and non-institutional investors. Our ability to remain eligible may also depend on having an acceptable peer-relative delinquency ratio for the Federal Housing Administration (“FHA”) and maintaining a delinquency rate with respect to Ginnie Mae pools that are below Ginnie Mae guidelines.

 

Any significant impairment of our eligibility with any of the Agencies could materially and adversely affect our operations. Further, the criteria for loans to be accepted under such programs may be changed from time-to-time by the sponsoring entity which could result in a lower volume of corresponding loan originations. The profitability of participating in specific programs may vary depending on a number of factors, including our administrative costs of originating and purchasing qualifying loans and our costs of meeting such criteria.

 

Our mortgage lending profitability could be significantly reduced as changes in interest rates could affect mortgage origination volume and pricing for selling mortgages on the secondary market.

 

Currently, we sell a large portion of the mortgage loans we originate. The profitability of our mortgage banking operations depends in large part upon our ability to originate and sell mortgages to the secondary market at a gain. A higher interest rate environment can negatively affect the volume of loan originations and refinanced loans reducing the dollar amount of loans available to be sold to the secondary market. Higher interest rates can also negatively affect the premium received on loans sold to the secondary market as competitive pressures to originate loans can reduce pricing.

 

Our information systems may experience an interruption or breach in security.

 

The Bank relies heavily on internal and outsourced digital technologies, communications, and information systems to conduct its business. As our reliance on technology systems increases, the potential risks of technology-related operation interruptions in our customer relationship management, general ledger, deposit, loan, or other systems or the occurrence of cyber incidents also increases. Cyber incidents can result from deliberate attacks or unintentional events including (i) unauthorized access to digital systems for purposes of misappropriating assets or sensitive information, corrupting data, or causing operational disruptions; (ii) denial-of-service attacks on websites; or (iii) intelligence gathering and social engineering aimed at obtaining information. The occurrence of operational interruption, cyber incident, or a deficiency in the cyber security of our technology systems (internal or outsourced) could negatively impact our financial condition or results of operations.

 

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We have policies and procedures expressly designed to prevent or limit the effect of a failure, interruption, or security breach of our systems and maintain cyber security insurance. However, such policies, procedures, or insurance may prove insufficient to prevent, repel, or mitigate a cyber incident. Significant interruptions to our business from technology issues could result in expensive remediation efforts and distraction of management. Although we have not experienced any material losses related to a technology-related operational interruption or cyber-attack, there can be no assurance that such failures, interruptions, or security breaches will not occur in the future or, if they do occur, that the impact will not be substantial.

 

The occurrence of any failures, interruptions, or security breaches of our technology systems could damage our reputation, result in a loss of customer business, result in the unauthorized release, gathering, monitoring, misuse, loss, or destruction of proprietary information, subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny, or expose us to civil litigation and possible financial liability, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, or stock price. As cyber threats continue to evolve, we may also be required to spend significant additional resources to continue to modify or enhance our protective measures or to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities.

 

We are subject to certain operational risks, including, but not limited to, customer or employee fraud and data processing system failures and errors.

 

Employee errors and employee and/or customer misconduct could subject us to financial losses or regulatory sanctions and seriously harm our reputation or financial performance. Misconduct by our employees could include, but is not limited to, hiding unauthorized activities from us, improper or unauthorized activities on behalf of our customers, or improper use of confidential information. It is not always possible to prevent employee errors and misconduct, and the precautions we take to prevent and detect this activity may not be effective in all cases. Employee errors could also subject us to financial claims for negligence.

 

We maintain a system of internal controls and insurance coverage to mitigate against operational risks, including data processing system failures and errors and customer or employee fraud. If our internal controls fail to prevent or detect an occurrence, or if any resulting loss is not insured or exceeds applicable insurance limits, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

We depend on outside third parties for processing and handling of our records and data.

 

The Bank relies on software developed by third party vendors to process various transactions. In some cases, we have contracted with third parties to run their proprietary software on our behalf. These systems include, but are not limited to, general ledger, payroll, employee benefits, loan and deposit processing, and securities portfolio management. While we perform a review of controls instituted by the vendors over these programs in accordance with industry standards and perform our own testing of user controls, we must rely on the continued maintenance of these controls by the outside party, including safeguards over the security of customer data. In addition, we maintain backups of key processing output daily in the event of a failure on the part of any of these systems. Nonetheless, we may incur a temporary disruption in the ability to conduct our business or process our transactions or incur damage to our reputation if the third party vendor fails to adequately maintain internal controls or institute necessary changes to systems. Such disruption or breach of security may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

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We continually encounter technological change.

 

The banking and financial services industry continually undergoes technological changes, with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. In addition to better meeting customer needs, the effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to reduce costs. Our future success will depend, in part, on our ability to address the needs of our customers by using technology to provide products an